8 Unique Dog Breeds from Australia

Australia is home to several distinctive dog breeds, each with unique traits that make them stand out. These breeds have adapted to Australia's diverse environments, from the arid outback to the bustling urban landscapes. 

Let’s delve into some of the most unique Australian dog breeds, exploring their history, characteristics and what makes each one special.

Australian Cattle Dog

The Australian Cattle Dog, also known as the Blue Heeler or Queensland Heeler, is a high-energy working breed developed to herd cattle over vast distances in the Australian outback. A mix of various breeds such as the Dalmatian, Blue Merle Collies and the native Australian Dingo, these dogs are recognised for their intelligence, agility and endurance.


Characterised by their muscular build and distinctive blue or red speckled coat, Australian Cattle Dogs are compact yet powerful. They are loyal and protective, making excellent companions for active individuals or families who can meet their high exercise needs. Their resourcefulness and hardiness were crucial in the Australian cattle industry's development.

Australian Cattle Dog

Australian Terrier

The Australian Terrier, one of the smallest terriers, is a robust, small and sturdy breed known for its distinctive rough double coat, erect ears and spirited personality. This breed emerged in the mid-19th century, when British settlers brought several types of terriers to Australia, which were then interbred to produce a versatile dog capable of dealing with harsh climates, rough terrains and handling various pests. The Australian Terrier possesses a confident, alert and friendly disposition, coupled with a high degree of intelligence and tenacity.

The Australian Terrier makes a splendid companion. They are adaptable, fit well into family life and are good with children. These terriers are robust and require moderate exercise to keep them healthy and entertained. Their size and energetic personality make them suitable for both apartment living and houses with yards. However, potential owners should be aware of their high prey drive – typical of terriers – and their occasional stubborn streak. This breed thrives in an environment where they are included in daily activities and given regular mental and physical stimulation.

Australian Kelpie

The Australian Kelpie is a renowned sheepdog, admired for its intelligence, agility and great hardworking nature. The breed's history is somewhat mysterious, with a mix of domestic dogs and, as some believe, the native Australian Dingo. Kelpies were developed to handle the demanding task of managing livestock in the harsh climate.

Kelpies are medium-sized dogs with a compact, athletic build and a short, double coat that comes in various colours, including black, red, chocolate and fawn. These dogs are energetic, loyal and have a natural instinct for herding. They thrive when given jobs to do, making them excellent working dogs and competitors in dog sports.

Australian Shepherd

The Australian Shepherd, often known simply as the "Aussie," is a breed of herding dog that, despite its name, was developed on ranches in the United States during the 19th century. This breed is well known for its striking multi-colored coat that comes in blue merle, red merle, black and red, often with white and/or tan markings. Aussies are also noted for their unique, expressive eyes, which can be blue, amber or brown, sometimes even a combination of these. They are medium-sized, sturdy and athletic, built for a full day's work. Australian Shepherds are intelligent, versatile and eager to please with a good-natured disposition and a strong work ethic.

Australian Shepherds can be delightful companions and great family pets, especially in active households that can provide the exercise and mental stimulation they crave. They are very loyal and tend to form strong bonds with their family. Given their intelligence and eagerness to please, they excel in obedience and are easy to train, but can become bored or destructive if not given enough to do. Potential owners should also note that they are natural herders and may display this behaviour with children or other pets. They thrive when they have a job to do, whether that’s herding livestock, competing in dog sports or being engaged in active play with their owners. With proper socialisation and training, the Australian Shepherd can be a wonderfully adaptable and affectionate dog. 

Australian Shepherd

Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog

The Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog is a naturally bob tailed or tailless breed developed in Australia for working with cattle. While they share some similarities with the Australian Cattle Dog, they are a separate breed with distinct ancestry. The breed is believed to have originated from a mix of native Australian Dingoes, Smithfield herding dogs and various Collie-type breeds.

Stumpy Tails have a short, dense, weather-resistant double coat that comes in blue or red, similar to the Australian Cattle Dog. They have a strong, compact body, a broad head and pricked ears. The most distinguishing feature of the breed is their naturally short or absent tail, giving them their name. This breed also has a medium-length, straight, dense double coat that is designed to withstand harsh weather conditions. The outer coat is harsh and straight, while the undercoat is short, dense and soft. As for the colour of the coat, the Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog comes in two main colours: blue and red.

Like their Australian Cattle Dog cousins, Stumpy Tails are intelligent, hard-working and highly trainable. They are loyal and protective of their family, making them excellent watchdogs. However, they can be reserved with strangers and require early socialisation. Their high energy and work drive mean they need plenty of exercise and mental stimulation, similar to a collie breed.

Australian Silky Terrier

The Australian Silky Terrier, or simply the Silky Terrier, is a small, elegant breed with a beautiful silky coat, hence the name. They are energetic, playful and friendly, yet they can also be quite brave and protective for their size, which makes them a perfect pet. 

The Silky Terrier was developed in the late 19th century in Australia. They were bred primarily as companion animals but they also had a knack for hunting rodents, a characteristic derived from their Terrier ancestry. The breed is a cross between Australian Terriers and Yorkshire Terriers.

Tenterfield Terrier

The Tenterfield Terrier is a small, agile breed, known for its versatility and friendly nature. They have a smooth coat that is predominantly white with black, liver or blue markings. Despite their small size, these dogs are energetic and love participating in various dog sports.

The Tenterfield Terrier traces its roots back to early British Fox Terriers that were brought to Australia in the 19th century. Over generations, these dogs were bred for their ratting abilities and adapted to the harsh environment, eventually evolving into what is known today as the Tenterfield Terrier. With the help of trustworthy dog breeders you can get yourself a premium dog. 

Tenterfield Terrier


The Koolie, also known as the Australian Koolie, is a working dog breed well-regarded for its extraordinary herding abilities. The breed's history is a bit nebulous, but they are believed to have German origins from the early 19th century, when they were brought to Australia by European settlers. Physically, Koolies vary greatly in colour and size but are generally medium-sized dogs with a double coat that can be either short or medium in length. They have a robust and agile physique suited for endurance and speed. Koolies are celebrated for their intelligence, versatility and adaptability, with a keen instinct for herding and an impressive work ethic.

When it comes to desirability as a pet, Koolies are an excellent choice for active families or individuals who can provide them with plenty of mental and physical stimulation. Their intelligence and eagerness to please make them highly trainable. However, potential owners should bear in mind that Koolies need a job to do – whether that's herding livestock, participating in dog sports or regular intensive exercise. Their sociable and loyal nature also makes them a great fit for families, but they may not be the best choice for first-time dog owners due to their high energy levels and need for mental stimulation.


The Dingo is Australia's wild dog, a unique animal that's been a significant part of the country's ecosystem for thousands of years. Dingoes are medium-sized dogs with a lean, athletic build and a thick double coat that varies in colour from sandy yellow to red ginger. They have erect ears, a bushy tail and are known for their agility, speed and endurance. Dingoes are highly independent creatures with keen senses and a sharp intelligence.

As pets, Dingoes are quite unique and challenging and are therefore not suitable for everyone. They have complex needs and a degree of independence that doesn't always align with typical domestic dog ownership. Their high energy levels, intelligence and independence mean they should be raised from birth and have a lot of mental and physical stimulation, along with a securely fenced yard. They can form strong bonds with their owners but may be less inclined to seek out human attention and affection than other breeds. It's also worth noting that keeping a Dingo as a pet is subject to strict regulation and is not permitted in certain areas due to their status as a native wildlife species.

Miniature Fox Terrier

The Miniature Fox Terrier, also known as the "Mini Foxy," is a small-sized breed developed in Australia in the 19th century for hunting rats and other small vermin. They are a sturdy, well-proportioned breed with a short, fine and glossy coat that comes in a combination of white with black or tan markings. Known for their intelligence, agility and bravery, Miniature Fox Terriers were bred for tenacity and speed in catching their quarry and these traits persist in the breed today.

Miniature Fox Terriers make excellent pets for the right families. They are energetic, affectionate and known for their loyalty and protective nature. These dogs get along well with children and can adapt to living in a variety of environments, including apartments, given adequate exercise. However, potential owners should note that these dogs can have a high prey drive and may not get along well with small pets. As with all dogs, early socialisation is essential to ensure that Miniature Fox Terriers grow into well-rounded pets.

Australia's unique dog breeds reflect the country's diverse environments and history. Australia's unique landscape and work demands have given rise to some truly distinctive dog breeds. Whether herding animals, hunting vermin or being a loyal companion, these breeds have carved out essential roles in both working and family life. Each breed's unique traits make them not only excellent working dogs, but with the right care and training, they can also make loyal and loving companions.